Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Species in Vietnam

Detailed species

Native species

Big-Headed Turtle
(Platysternon megacephalum)

Malayan Box Turtle
(Cuora amboinensis kamaroma)

Bourret’s Box Turtle
(Cuora bourreti)

Indochinese Box Turtle
(Cuora galbinifrons)

Southern Vietnamese Box Turtle
(Cuora picturata)

Keeled Box Turtle
(Cuora mouhotii)

Vietnamese Three-striped Box Turtle
(Cuora (trifasciata) cyclornata)

Western Black-bridged Leaf Turtle
(Cyclemys atripons)

Southern Asian Leaf Turtle
(Cyclemys oldhamii)

Eastern Black-bridged Leaf Turtle
(Cyclemys pulchristriata)

Black-breasted Leaf Turtle
(Geoemyda spengleri)

Yellow-headed Temple Turtle
(Heosemys annandalii)

Giant Asian Pond Turtle
(Heosemys grandis)

Mekong Snail-eating Turtle
(Malayemys subtrijuga)

Vietnamese Pond Turtle
(Mauremys annamensis)

Asian yellow Pond Turtle
(Mauremys mutica)

Chinese striped-neck Turtle
(Mauremys sinensis)

Four-eyed Turtle
(Sacalia quadriocellata)

Black Marsh Turtle
(Siebenrockiella crassicollis)

Elongated Tortoise
(Indotestudo elongata)

Impressed Tortoise
(Manouria impressa)

Southeast Asian Softshell Turtle
(Amyda (cartilaginea) ornata)

Wattle-necked Softshell Turtle
(Palea steindachneri)

Cantor’s giant Softshell Turtle
(Pelochelys cantorii)

Spotted Softshell Turtle
(Pelodiscus variegatus)

Swinhoe’s Softshell Turtle
(Rafetus swinhoei)

Non-native species

Overall information
Total26species have been reported in Vietnam

According to IUCN Red List 2020, they are listed

Critically Endangered7
Endangered10
Vulnerable5
Not Evaluated4

Big-headed Turtle

Platysternon megacephalum

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix I
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, southern China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Fast-flowing streams and waterfalls
Major threats: Hunting and trade

Malayan Box Turtle

Cuora amboinensis kamaroma

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Myanmar (?), Philippines (?), Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Lowland wetlands, ponds, marshes and slow-flowing streams
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Bourret’s Box Turtle

Cuora bourreti

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix I
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Woodlands and evergreen forests at mid- to high elevations
Major threats: Habitat degradation, hunting and trade

Indochinese Box Turtle

Cuora galbinifrons

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP
Distribution: Southern China, Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Woodlands and evergreen forests at mid- to high elevations
Major threats: Habitat degradation, hunting and trade

Keeled Box Turtle

Cuora mouhotii

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand (?)
Habitat: Limestone forests, caves and mountains
Major threats: Habitat degradation, hunting and trade

Southern Vietnam Box Turtle

Cuora picturata

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix I
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Central Vietnam
Habitat: Woodlands and evergreen forests at mid- to high elevations
Major threats: Habitat degradation, hunting and trade

Vietnamese Three-striped Box Turtle

Cuora (trifasciata) cyclornata

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP
Distribution: China, Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Forest streams and marshes at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Western Black-bridged Leaf Turtle

Cyclemys atripons

Conservation status: Not Evaluated (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
Distribution: Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Forest streams and marshes at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Southern Asian Leaf Turtle

Cyclemys oldhamii

Conservation status: Not Evaluated (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Forest streams and marshes at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Eastern Black-bridged Leaf Turtle

Cyclemys pulchristriata

Conservation status: Not Evaluated (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Cambodia, Vietnam
Habitat: Forest streams and marshes at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Black-breasted Leaf Turtle

Geoemyda spengleri

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: China, Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Montane forests at mid- to high elevations
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Yellow-headed Temple Turtle

Heosemys annandalii

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular), Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Slow-flowing rivers, ponds and wetlands
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Giant Asian Pond Turtle

Heosemys grandis

Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Rivers, streams, marshes, and wetlands at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Mekong Snail-eating Turtle

Malayemys subtrijuga

Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand (?), Vietnam
Habitat: Ponds, streams, swamps, marshes, and wetlands at low elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss and hunting

Vietnamese Pond Turtle

Mauremys annamensis

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP
Distribution: Central Vietnam
Habitat: Ponds, marshes, wetlands and slow-moving streams at low elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade for local consumption

Yellow Pond Turtle

Mauremys mutica

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IB
Distribution: China, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam
Habitat: Ponds, marshes, wetlands and slow-moving streams
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle

Mauremys sinensis

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix III
Distribution: China, Taiwan, Vietnam
Habitat: Rivers, ponds and wetlands at low elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Four-eyed Turtle

Sacalia quadriocellata

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: China, Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Woodland streams in montane forests
Major threats: Hunting and trade

Black Marsh Turtle

Siebenrockiella crassicollis

Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Slow-flowing rivers, streams, ponds and marshes
Major threats: Hunting and trade

Elongated Tortoise

Indotestudo elongata

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Forests, grasslands and scrublands at low-mid elevations
Major threats: Hunting, local consumption, international trade and habitat loss

Impressed Tortoise

Manouria impressa

Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Hilly and montane forests at mid-to high elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Southeast Asian Softshell Turtle

Amyda ornata

Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Various lakes, streams and rivers
Major threats: Hunting, international trade and local consumption

Wattle-necked Softshell Turtle

Palea steindachneri

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
Distribution: China, Vietnam
Habitat: Streams, rivers, lakes, ponds and marshes at low-mid elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Cantor’s Giant Softshell Turtle

Pelochelys cantorii

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IIB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP
Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Large rivers, lakes and coastal waters
Major threats: Hunting and local consumption

Spotted Softshell Turtle

Pelodiscus variegatus

Conservation status: Not Evaluated (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
None
Distribution: China, Vietnam
Habitat: Rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and wetlands
Major threats: Hunting, local consumption and habitat loss

Swinhoe’s Softshell Turtle

Rafetus swinhoei

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2020)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Decree 06/2019/ND-CP Appendix IB
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP
Distribution:
Historic: the Red River system of China and Vietnam
Current: Hanoi province, Vietnam
Habitat: Large rivers, lakes and wetlands
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade for local consumption