Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Species in Vietnam

Species list

List of tortoise and freshwater turtle species of Vietnam

No Family/Species Common name Conservation status Legal protection
IUCN SDVN CITES
LDT
ND06
ND160 ND26
Platysternidae
1 Platysternon megacephalum Big- headed Turtle CR (2021) EN I X IB X X
Geoemydidae
2 Cuora amboinensis Malayan Box Turtle EN (2020) VU II IIB
3 Cuora galbinifrons Indochinese Box Turtle CR (2020) EN II X IB X X
4 Cuora bourreti Bourret’s Box Turtle CR (2020) EN I IB X
5 Cuora picturata Southern Vietnamese Box Turtle CR (2020) EN I IB X

6

Cuora mouhotii Keeled Box Turtle EN (2020) II IIB
7 Cuora cyclornata Vietnamese Three-striped Box Turtle CR (2020) CR II X IB X X

8

Cyclemys oldhamii Southern Asian Leaf Turtle EN (2021) II IIB
9 Cyclemys pulchristriata Eastern Black-bridged Leaf Turtle EN (2021) II IIB
10 Cyclemys atripons Western Black-Bridged Leaf Turtle EN (2021) II
11 Geoemyda spengleri Black-breasted Leaf Turtle EN (2020) II IIB
12 Heosemys grandis Giant Asian Pond Turtle CR (2021) VU II IIB
13 Heosemys annandalii Yellow-headed Temple Turtle CR (2021) EN II IIB
14 Malayemys subtrijuga Mekong Snail-eating Turtle NT (2021) VU II IIB
15 Mauremys annamensis Vietnamese Pond Turtle CR (2020) CR I X IB X X
16 Mauremys mutica Asian Yellow Pond Turtle CR (2021) II IIB
17 Mauremys sinensis Chinese Striped-neck Turtle CR (2021) III
18 Sacalia quadriocellata Four-eyed Turtle CR (2021) II IIB
19 Siebenrockiella crassicollis Black Marsh Turtle EN (2021) II IIB
Testudinidae
20 Indotestudo elongata Elongated Tortoise CR (2019) EN II IIB
21 Manouria impressa Impressed Tortoise EN (2021) VU II IIB
Trionychidae
22 Amyda ornata Asiatic Softshell Turtle VU (2016) VU II IIB
23 Palea steindachneri Wattle-necked Softshell Turtle CR (2021) VU II IIB
24 Pelochelys cantorii Cantor’s Giant Softshell Turtle CR (2021) EN II X IB X X
25 Pelodiscus variegatus Spotted Softshell Turtle
26 Rafetus swinhoei Swinhoe’s Softshell Turtle CR (2021) CR II X IB X X

Note
IUCN:    IUCN Red List
SDVN:   Vietnam Red book 2007
CITES:  CITES Convention
ND06:    Decree 06/2019/ND-CP amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP
ND160:  Decree 160/2013/ND-CP amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP
LDT:      Investment law 2014
ND26:    Decree 26/2019/ND-CP
CR:         Critically Endangered
EN:         Endangered
VU:         Vulnerable
NT:         Near Threatened

Detailed species

Native species

Big-Headed Turtle
(Platysternon megacephalum)

Malayan Box Turtle
(Cuora amboinensis kamaroma)

Bourret’s Box Turtle
(Cuora bourreti)

Indochinese Box Turtle
(Cuora galbinifrons)

Southern Vietnamese Box Turtle
(Cuora picturata)

Keeled Box Turtle
(Cuora mouhotii)

Vietnamese Three-striped Box Turtle
(Cuora (trifasciata) cyclornata)

Western Black-bridged Leaf Turtle
(Cyclemys atripons)

Southern Asian Leaf Turtle
(Cyclemys oldhamii)

Eastern Black-bridged Leaf Turtle
(Cyclemys pulchristriata)

Black-breasted Leaf Turtle
(Geoemyda spengleri)

Yellow-headed Temple Turtle
(Heosemys annandalii)

Giant Asian Pond Turtle
(Heosemys grandis)

Mekong Snail-eating Turtle
(Malayemys subtrijuga)

Vietnamese Pond Turtle
(Mauremys annamensis)

Asian yellow Pond Turtle
(Mauremys mutica)

Chinese striped-neck Turtle
(Mauremys sinensis)

Four-eyed Turtle
(Sacalia quadriocellata)

Black Marsh Turtle
(Siebenrockiella crassicollis)

Elongated Tortoise
(Indotestudo elongata)

Impressed Tortoise
(Manouria impressa)

Southeast Asian Softshell Turtle
(Amyda (cartilaginea) ornata)

Wattle-necked Softshell Turtle
(Palea steindachneri)

Cantor’s giant Softshell Turtle
(Pelochelys cantorii)

Spotted Softshell Turtle
(Pelodiscus variegatus)

Swinhoe’s Softshell Turtle
(Rafetus swinhoei)

Non-native species

Overall information
Total26species have been reported in Vietnam

According to IUCN Red List 2021, they are listed

Critically Endangered15
Endangered8
Vulnerable1
Near Threatened1
Not Evaluated1

Big-headed Turtle

Platysternon megacephalum

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix I
– Group IB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, southern China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Fast-flowing streams and waterfalls
Major threats: Hunting and trade

Malayan Box Turtle

Cuora amboinensis kamaroma

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)

Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Myanmar (?), Philippines (?), Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Lowland wetlands, ponds, marshes and slow-flowing streams
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Bourret’s Box Turtle

Cuora bourreti

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix I
– Group IB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Woodlands and evergreen forests at mid- to high elevations
Major threats: Habitat degradation, hunting and trade

Indochinese Box Turtle

Cuora galbinifrons

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IB Decree 84/2021/ND-CP (amendment and supplement of Decree 06/2019/ND-CP)
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Southern China, Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Woodlands and evergreen forests at mid- to high elevations
Major threats: Habitat degradation, hunting and trade

Keeled Box Turtle

Cuora mouhotii

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand (?)
Habitat: Limestone forests, caves and mountains
Major threats: Habitat degradation, hunting and trade

Southern Vietnam Box Turtle

Cuora picturata

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix I
– Group IB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Central Vietnam
Habitat: Woodlands and evergreen forests at mid- to high elevations
Major threats: Habitat degradation, hunting and trade

Vietnamese Three-striped Box Turtle

Cuora (trifasciata) cyclornata

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IB Decree 84/2021/ND-CP (amendment and supplement of Decree 06/2019/ND-CP)
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: China, Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Forest streams and marshes at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Western Black-bridged Leaf Turtle

Cyclemys atripons

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
Distribution: Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Forest streams and marshes at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Southern Asian Leaf Turtle

Cyclemys oldhamii

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Forest streams and marshes at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Eastern Black-bridged Leaf Turtle

Cyclemys pulchristriata

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, Vietnam
Habitat: Forest streams and marshes at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Black-breasted Leaf Turtle

Geoemyda spengleri

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: China, Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Montane forests at mid- to high elevations
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Yellow-headed Temple Turtle

Heosemys annandalii

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular), Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Slow-flowing rivers, ponds and wetlands
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Giant Asian Pond Turtle

Heosemys grandis

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Rivers, streams, marshes, and wetlands at low to mid-elevations
Major threats: Hunting and international trade

Mekong Snail-eating Turtle

Malayemys subtrijuga

Conservation status: Near Threatened (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand (?), Vietnam
Habitat: Ponds, streams, swamps, marshes, and wetlands at low elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss and hunting

Vietnamese Pond Turtle

Mauremys annamensis

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Central Vietnam
Habitat: Ponds, marshes, wetlands and slow-moving streams at low elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade for local consumption

Yellow Pond Turtle

Mauremys mutica

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: China, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam
Habitat: Ponds, marshes, wetlands and slow-moving streams
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle

Mauremys sinensis

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix III
Distribution: China, Taiwan, Vietnam
Habitat: Rivers, ponds and wetlands at low elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Four-eyed Turtle

Sacalia quadriocellata

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: China, Laos, Vietnam
Habitat: Woodland streams in montane forests
Major threats: Hunting and trade

Black Marsh Turtle

Siebenrockiella crassicollis

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Slow-flowing rivers, streams, ponds and marshes
Major threats: Hunting and trade

Elongated Tortoise

Indotestudo elongata

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Forests, grasslands and scrublands at low-mid elevations
Major threats: Hunting, local consumption, international trade and habitat loss

Impressed Tortoise

Manouria impressa

Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Hilly and montane forests at mid-to high elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Southeast Asian Softshell Turtle

Amyda ornata

Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Various lakes, streams and rivers
Major threats: Hunting, international trade and local consumption

Wattle-necked Softshell Turtle

Palea steindachneri

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IIB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
Distribution: China, Vietnam
Habitat: Streams, rivers, lakes, ponds and marshes at low-mid elevations
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade

Cantor’s Giant Softshell Turtle

Pelochelys cantorii

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
Habitat: Large rivers, lakes and coastal waters
Major threats: Hunting and local consumption

Spotted Softshell Turtle

Pelodiscus variegatus

Conservation status: Not Evaluated (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
None
Distribution: China, Vietnam
Habitat: Rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and wetlands
Major threats: Hunting, local consumption and habitat loss

Swinhoe’s Softshell Turtle

Rafetus swinhoei

Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2021)
Legal protections:
– CITES Appendix II
– Group IB Decree 06/2019/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 84/2021/ND-CP)
– Decree 160/2013/ND-CP (amended and supplemented by Decree 64/2019/ND-CP)
Distribution:
Historic: large river system of China and Vietnam
Current: Suzhou Zoo, China and Dong Mo lake and Xuan Khanh lake, Hanoi, Vietnam
Habitat: Large rivers, lakes and wetlands
Major threats: Habitat loss, hunting and trade for local consumption